1. Flammable organic solvents
Many organic solvents can cause a fire or even explode if not handled properly. The mixture of solvent and air rapidly spreads as soon as it is burned. Large firepower can instantly ignite flammable objects and ignite where oxygen is plentiful (such as oxygen cylinder leaks), making it more fierce and burning some non-flammable substances. Explosions can even occur when flammable organic solvent vapors are mixed with air and reach a certain concentration range.
When using flammable organic solvents, note the following:
(1) Place the flammable liquid container in the lower reagent rack.
(2) Keep the container closed and open the lid of the closed container when the liquid needs to be dumped.
(3) Flammable organic solvents should be used where there is no source of ignition and in a well-ventilated area (eg fume hood), but not too much.
(4) Storage of flammable solvents, storage should be as much as possible to avoid danger.
(5) heating flammable liquid, it is best to use oil bath or water bath, shall not use open flame heating.
(6) The use of flammable organic solvents should pay special attention to the use of temperature and experimental conditions, Table 1 commonly used organic solvent ignition point, auto-ignition temperature, the concentration range of combustion.
(7) Combustion of a mixture of chemical gases and air can cause an explosion (eg, 3.25 grams of acetone gas burns equivalent to 10 grams of explosive), therefore caution must be exercised during the combustion test.
(8) In the process of using, the following common fire sources should be wary: open flame (bunsen burner, torch, oil lamp, fireplace, ignition flame and match), spark (power switch, friction), heat source Ovens, radiators, removable heaters, cigarettes), electrostatic charge.
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2. Toxic organic solvents
Toxicity of organic solvents in the solvent or contact with the human body caused by local anesthetic stimulation or the body functions obstacles. All volatile organic solvents, the vapor for a long time, high concentrations and human exposure is always toxic, such as: primary alcohols (except methanol), ethers, aldehydes, ketones, partial esters, benzyl alcohol solvent Easy to damage the nervous system; methyl carboxylates, formates can cause lung poisoning; benzene and its derivatives, ethylene glycol and other blood poisoning occurs; halogenated hydrocarbons can cause liver and metabolic poisoning; tetrachloroethane And ethylene glycol will cause serious kidney poisoning. Therefore should pay attention to the following when using:
(1) Try not to contact the skin directly with organic solvents, be sure to personal protection, see: Three personal protective knowledge laboratory.
(2) pay attention to keep the experimental site ventilation.
(3) If any toxic organic solvent spills during use, remove all sources of ignition according to the amount of overflow, remind lab site personnel to spray with fire extinguishers, and then clean, bag and seal with absorbent, and treat as waste solvent .
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